Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia

National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

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Important

It is possible that the main title of the report Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia is not the name you expected.

Disorder Subdivisions

  • None

General Discussion

Summary

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare disorder characterized by the rapid accumulation of eosinophils in the lungs (pulmonary eosinophilia). Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell and are part of the immune system. They are usually produced in response to allergens, inflammation or infection (especially parasitic ones) and are particularly active in the respiratory tract. Common symptoms associated with AEP include progressive shortness of breath (dyspnea) of rapid onset and possibly acute respiratory failure, cough, fatigue, night sweats, fever, and unintended weight loss. The exact cause of the disorder is unknown (idiopathic) in many cases, however recent change in tobacco smoking habits and drug intake can trigger the disease. Outcome is favorable with corticosteroids, without relapse.



Introduction

AEP was first described as a distinct entity in the medical literature in 1989. AEP is classified as a form of eosinophilic lung disease, a large group of interstitial lung diseases. AEP is different from chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), which is marked by slower progression, lack of progression to acute respiratory failure, frequent relapses and is often associated with asthma. For more information on CEP, choose "chronic eosinophilic pneumonia" as your search term in the NORD Rare Disease Database.

Symptoms

AEP is characterized by a sudden, rapid onset of symptoms usually within 1-7 days. However, in some cases, symptoms may develop less rapidly over the course of up to one month. AEP often develops in young, otherwise healthy individuals. Associated symptoms are nonspecific and can include fever, cough, difficulty breathing (dyspnea) and chest pain. Less common symptoms include fatigue, muscle pain (myalgia), joint aches, and abdominal discomfort or pain.



AEP can rapidly progress to acute respiratory failure. Acute respiratory failure occurs when the level of oxygen in the blood decreases severely (hypoxemia), potentially resulting in life-threatening breathing complications. This can occur within a few days or even within hours in individuals with AEP. Approximately two-thirds of individuals may require mechanical ventilation.



AEP is an extremely rare disorder and may be confused with infectious pneumonia, especially in the absence of differential cell count on bronchoalveolar lavage. As AEP becomes better known and more affected individuals are identified, researchers should be able to obtain a better clinical understanding of the disorder. For example, some researchers believe that milder cases of AEP exist, but may go undiagnosed. These mild cases may cause less severe symptoms and complications.

Causes

The cause of IAEP is unknown (idiopathic). Researchers believe that AEP develops due to an unidentified, nonspecific triggering agent that causes the body to produce eosinophils. The exact reason for the overproduction and accumulation of eosinophils is unknown.



Several environmental factors including occupational factors have been shown to trigger AEP including exposure to dust and smoke. It is unlikely that a single environmental factor causes AEP. Most likely, multiple factors are necessary for the development of the disorder, with association of a triggering condition in a predisposed individual. The triggering factor in AEP can be different from one individual to another.



In many cases, cigarette smoking is believed to play a key role in the development of the disorder, specifically in individuals who had just begun smoking within the last three months before the onset of the disorder, have resumed smoking after temporary cessation, or have recently increased the number of cigarettes smoked daily. Several reports in the medical literature have demonstrated an association between cigarette smoking and "idiopathic" AEP in a subset of affected individuals. The exact role that smoking plays in the development of AEP in such cases is not fully understood.



Occupational factors that have been showed to trigger AEP are numerous and varied. These cases suggest that breathing in some type of contaminate or inhaled agent that induces damage to the lungs can trigger AEP.



Additional reports in the medical literature have linked some cases of AEP to the use of a number of drugs. Drug-induced cases have been linked to minocycline, daptomycin, and velafaxine, an antidepressant, and others (www.pneumotox.com) .



Some researchers believe that cytokines (specialized proteins secreted from certain immune system cells that either stimulate or inhibit the function of other immune system cells) may play a role in the development of eosinophilic disorders. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a cytokine that is known to be a regulator of the development and function of eosinophils. IL-5 also suppresses the normal disintegration (apoptosis) of eosinophils resulting in their accumulation within the lungs and bloodstream. More research is necessary to determine the exact role and mechanism of agents that trigger AEP in the appropriate context.

Affected Populations

AEP affects males approximately twice as often as females. Fewer than 200 cases have been reported in the medical literature and the exact prevalence is unknown. AEP can affect individuals of any age, but occurs most often in individuals between 20-40 years of age.

Diagnosis

A diagnosis of AEP is based upon identification of characteristic symptoms, a detailed patient history, a thorough clinical evaluation, and a variety of specialized tests especially bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). The presence of other causes of pulmonary eosinophilia such as parasitic infections or exposure to certain drugs must be systematically investigated.



Clinical Testing and Work-Up

An exam known as BAL, is key in the diagnosis of AEP. During a BAL, a narrow tube (flexible bronchoscope) is slid down the windpipe into the lungs and a sterile solution is passed through the tube washing out (lavaging) cells. This fluid is collected and then the tube is removed, allowing the cells to be studied. BAL fluid in individuals with AEP reveals abnormally high levels of eosinophils (greater than 25%). Fiberoptic bronchoscopy is performed under local anesthesia; it is performed through the intratracheal tube in patients with mechanical ventilation. Arterial blood gases demonstrates hypoxemia often severe, which may reflect right to left shunting in consolidated lung.



Specific imaging techniques may be used to help confirm a diagnosis of AEP including chest x-ray, however abnormalities are not specific. Chest x-rays in individuals with AEP generally show white lines or hazy patches (infiltrates) in the lungs. Chest CT shows alveolar bilateral consolidation, with associated bilateral pleural effusion of mild to moderate severity, and interlobular septal thickening, which are suggestive of the disease.



During the acute phase, pulmonary function tests typically show a restricted pattern.

Standard Therapies

Treatment

Individuals with AEP respond within days to high doses of corticosteroids, which usually are prescribed for two weeks. Corticosteroid therapy is initiated only after an infectious cause of pulmonary eosinophilia has been ruled out. Within the medical literature, the dose and duration of corticosteroid therapy has varied greatly, with a recent series suggesting that a two-week treatment is sufficient. There is no standardized dose for corticosteroid therapy in individuals with AEP. Individuals reported in the medical literature received intravenous corticosteroids initially, followed by oral administration afterward. In some cases, AEP improves without any treatment (spontaneous remission). There is no relapse after steroid therapy is stopped. The long term prognosis is excellent.



Because the disorder often progresses rapidly, many individuals require admission into an intensive care unit to receive respiratory support. Respiratory support can consist of either invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Invasive ventilation provides respiratory support through intratracheal tube. Noninvasive ventilation providing respiratory support via a ventilator and a nasal or facial mask may suffice to support ventilation until rapid improvement is observed with corticosteroids, and weaning becomes possible (usually within less than one week).

Investigational Therapies

Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at <a title="Clinical Trials" href="http://www.clinicaltrials.gov" target="_blank">www.clinicaltrials.gov</a>. All studies receiving U.S. government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.



For information about clinical trials being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:



Toll-free: (800) 411-1222

TTY: (866) 411-1010

Email: <a title="prpl@cc.nih.gov" href="mailto:prpl@cc.nih.gov" target="_blank">prpl@cc.nih.gov</a>



For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, in the main, contact:

<a title="Centerwatch" href="http://www.centerwatch.com" target="_blank">www.centerwatch.com</a>

For more information about clinical trials conducted in Europe, contact: <a title="Clinical Trial Registry" href="https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/" target="_blank">https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/</a>

References

TEXTBOOKS

Cottin V, Cordier JF. Eosinophilic pneumonias, In : Cottin V, Cordier JF, Richeldi L. Orphan lung diseases: a clinical guide to rare lung disease. 2015, Springer-Verlag (London).

Cordier JF, Cottin V. Eosinophilic Pneumonias. In: Interstitial Lung Disease, 5th ed. Schwarz MI, King Jr. TE, eds. 2011, People's Medical Publishing House, Shelton, CT. pp. 833-893.



Cottin V. Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonias. In: European Respiratory Monograph: Clinical Handbooks for the Respiratory Professional. Orphan Lung Diseases. Cordier JF, ed. 2011, European Respiratory Society, United Kingdom. Pp. 118-139.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Rhee CK, Min KH, Yim NY, Lee JE, Lee NR, Chung MP, Jeon K. Clinical characteristics and corticosteroid treatment of acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Eur Respir J 2013;41:402-9. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22599359

Tsigkaropoulou E, Hatzilia D, Rizos E, et al. Venlafaxine-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011;33:e7-9. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21762842



Miller BA, Gray A, Leblanc TW, et al. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia secondary to daptomycin: a report of three cases. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:63-68. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420515



Jeong YJ, Kim KL, Seo IJ, et al. Eosinophilic lung diseases: a clinical, radiologic, and pathologic overview. Radiographics. 2007;27:617-637. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17495282



Shorr AF, Scoville SL, Cersovsky SB, et al. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia among US military personnel deployed in or near Iraq. JAMA. 2004;292:2997-3005. //jama.ama-assn.org/content/292/24/2997.long



Allen JN, Magro CM, King MA. The eosinophilic pneumonias. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;23:127-134. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16088605



Poletti V, Costabel U, Casoni GL, et al. Rare infiltrative lung diseases: a challenge for clinicians. Respiration. 2004;71:431-443. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15467318



Philit F, Etienne-Mastroianni B, Parrot A, et al. Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia. A study of 22 patients. Am J Respir Crit Car Med. 2002;166:1235-1239. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12403693



INTERNET

Saukkonen JJ. Pulmonary Eosinophilia.Medscape, Updated: Sep 30, 2013. Available at: //emedicine.medscape.com/article/301070-overview Accessed March 4, 2015.

Supporting Organizations

American Partnership for Eosinophilic Disorders (APFED)

PO Box 29545
Atlanta, GA 30359
Tel: (713)493-7749
Fax: (713)493-7749
Website: //www.apfed.org

Campaign Urging Research for Eosinophilic Disease (CURED)

PO Box 32
Lincolnshire, IL 60069
Tel: (847)361-3292
Email: ellyn@curedfoundation.org
Website: //www.curedfoundation.org

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

1600 Clifton Road NE
Atlanta, GA 30333
Tel: (404)639-3534
Tel: (800)232-4636
Email: cdcinfo@cdc.gov
Website: //www.cdc.gov/

Cincinnati Center for Eosinophilic Disorders

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
3333 Burnet Avenue
Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039
Tel: (513)636-2233
Fax: (513)636-9069
Tel: (800)344-2462
Email: cced@cchmc.org
Website: //www.cincinnatichildrens.org/eosinophils

Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center

PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
Tel: (301)251-4925
Fax: (301)251-4911
Tel: (888)205-2311
Website: //rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/

NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute

P.O. Box 30105
Bethesda, MD 20892-0105
Tel: (301)592-8573
Fax: (301)251-1223
Email: nhlbiinfo@rover.nhlbi.nih.gov
Website: //www.nhlbi.nih.gov/

For a Complete Report

This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.® (NORD). Cigna members can access the complete report by logging into myCigna.com. For non-Cigna members, a copy of the complete report can be obtained for a small fee by visiting the NORD website. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational treatments (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, see http://www.rarediseases.org/search/rdblist.html.